2019年GRE考试练习及答案6

GRE留学考试考试网 鲤鱼小编 更新时间:2019-07-16

2019GRE考试就在一个月后开始,为了让大家更好的备考,鲤鱼小编为大家准备了一些 考试的练习题,快来看看吧。

GRE阅读题目解析:全新世晚期

Human impacts on the natural environment during the later part of the Holocene (beginning about 4,000 years ago) complicate investigations into environmental change during that period because the signals produced by human-and climate-induced change are sometimes difficult to separate. For example, in the later Holocene, one indicator of increased aridity due to climate change is an increase in pollen from grasses, as forest vegetation gives way to grassland. Such a change in vegetation could alternatively be attributed to human impact in the form of agricultural development. Examples of such human impact from 4,000 years ago would be small-scale, however, since the broad ecosystem changes brought about by the widespread adoption of agricultural technologies occurred later.

1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?

A. It provides an example of the kind of problems that often complicate investigations into environmental change.

B. It call into question the reliability of the established dates for later Holocene agricultural development.

C. It describes the nature of localized agricultural developments during the later Holocene.

D. It outlines a hypothesis that draws on evidence discussed earlier in the passage.

E. It limits the scope of a particular complication mentioned earlier in the passage.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true regarding environmental changes 4,000 years ago?

A. No localized increases in grass pollen were caused by agricultural development.

B. Increases in grass pollen were at least sometimes a reflection of an increase in aridity.

C. Wholesale ecosystem changes probably resulted from agricultural development.

D. Any small-scale changes occurring then would not be detectable now.

E. Environmental change helped induce the adoption of agricultural technologies.

解析:

1.Human impacts on the natural environment during the later part of the Holocene (beginning about 4,000 years ago) complicate investigations into environmental change during that period because the signals produced by human- and climate-induced change are sometimes difficult to separate.

全新世晚期(开始于约 4000 年前)人类对自然环境的影响,让关于当时环境改变的研究变得复杂,因为人类引起的改变和气候引起的改变,有时难以区分。

全新世 [Holocene epoch]

旧称最新世(Recent epoch)

地球地质史的最后阶段,时间从10,000年前到现在。是构成第四纪的两个世中年代较晚的一个,在更新世最后一个冰期之后,特点是气候条件比较温暖。这时期,人类技术有所精进,逐渐导向现代文明水平。(大英袖珍百科)

2.For example, in the later Holocene, one indicator of increased aridity due to climate change is an increase in pollen from grasses, as forest vegetation gives way to grassland.

例如,全新世晚期,因气候改变而导致干旱加剧的一种指标,是禾本植物的划分增多,因为 森林植被 被草原取代。

3.Such a change in vegetation could alternatively be attributed to human impact in the form of agricultural development.

这样一种植被的改变,也可以被另外地解释为人类农业的发展的后果。

4.Examples of such human impact from 4,000 years ago would be small-scale, however, since the broad ecosystem changes brought about by the widespread adoption of agricultural technologies occurred later.

4000 年前,这类人类影响的例子可能是小规模的,然而,因农业技术的广泛传播而产生的大范围生态系统改变,随后就发生了。

(现在来看,since 句是个病句,要么把 since 划掉,否则只能认为材料截取原文时漏掉了一些内容,使 since 作为一个连词,引导了一个无意义的分句)

1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?

A. It provides an example of the kind of problems that often complicate investigations into environmental change.

B. It call into question the reliability of the established dates for later Holocene agricultural development.

C. It describes the nature of localized agricultural developments during the later Holocene.

D. It outlines a hypothesis that draws on evidence discussed earlier in the passage.

E. It limits the scope of a particular complication mentioned earlier in the passage.

E

理一下文章逻辑:

全新世后期,约 4000 年前开始,人们在研究环境改变的课题时,遇到了问题,环境改变可能是因为人类的原因,也可能是因为气候的原因,二者难以区分,或算出明确的比例。比如禾本植物的花粉增多,意味着干旱,但科学家们无法确认,是因为气候干旱,树枯死了草开始生长,还是人类的农业活动伐木垦田导致的。所谓 complication 指的就是这种说不清。

高亮句说,开始人类活动是小规模的,后来蔓延开来。可以认为是限定了 complication 程度,小规模意味着比较容易分辨,还勉强说得清,考察其他没有人类影响的地区就好,但后来人类活动范围变大了,就说不清了。

所以选 E

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true regarding environmental changes 4,000 years ago?

A. No localized increases in grass pollen were caused by agricultural development.

B. Increases in grass pollen were at least sometimes a reflection of an increase in aridity.

C. Wholesale ecosystem changes probably resulted from agricultural development.

D. Any small-scale changes occurring then would not be detectable now.

E. Environmental change helped induce the adoption of agricultural technologies.

B

至少有时禾本植物花粉变多反映了干旱加剧。

A 错。如果跟农业发展一点关系都没有,根本不可能 difficult to seprate

C 错。也可能有气候因素。

D 错。未知信息。

E 错。因果关系说反了,是农业推广加速了环境改变,人种地不会意识到最近一千年越来越干旱了,终于适合种地了,古人不可能有这种意识。

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