In the past, the concept of marketing emphasised sales. The producer or manufacturer made a product he wanted to sell. ____ example ____ . Basically, selling the product would be accomplished by sales promotion, which included advertising and personal selling ____ (8) ____ Distribution consisted of transportation, storage, and related services such as financing, standardisation and grading, and the related risks.
The modern marketing concept encompasses all of the activities mentioned, but it is based on a different set of principles ____ (9) ____ In other words, goods should be produced only if they can be sold. Therefore, the producer should consider who is going to buy the product ------ or what the market for the product is ---- before production begins.
Marketing now involves first deciding what the customer wants, and designing and producing a product that satisfies these wants at a profit to the company ____(11)____ This is much more difficult since it involves human behaviour. ____(12)____ Thus, demand and market forces are still an important aspect of modern marketing, but they are considered prior to the production process.
A. It subscribes to the notion that production can be economically justified only by consumption.
B. Marketing was the task of figuring out how to sell the product.
C. Marketing is as important in today’s economy as the production of goods and services.
D. Production, on the other hand, is mostly an engineering problem.
E. Such markets must be created and stimulated by managers.
F. This is very different from making a product and then thinking about how to sell it.
G. More than half the cost of consumer goods can be traced to marketing activities.
H. In addition to sales promotion, marketing also involved the physical distribution of the
product to the places where it was actually sold.
I. Instead of concentrating solely on production, the company must consider the desires of the
答案：Questions 8 - 12: H, A, F, I, D